Dyslexia Screenings

This blog post attempts to explain what a Dyslexia Screening assessment is and what children can benefit from one.

What is a Dyslexia Screening assessment?

A Dyslexia Screening assessment from ‘Surrey Dyslexia Support’ involves using professional standardised tests to determine your child’s Word Reading, Reading Comprehension, Reading speed and Spelling skills. Children are also asked to write a short piece of independent writing so that this can be analysed. For younger children, a phonic assessment is also useful.

What happens after the assessment?

You will receive a report with all of the scores, the areas of strengths and weaknesses noted and, crucially, useful strategies linked to these. If the scores come out as low and dyslexia is suspected, you will be given more information on this and the option to ‘top-up’ to a full assessment, if this is wanted.

How is a Dyslexia Screening assessment different to a full diagnostic assessment?

In a full diagnostic assessment, as well as the literacy tests mentioned above, the following tests would be undertaken: Verbal and Visual Intelligence, Memory, Phonological and Processing skills and Handwriting Speed and Letter Formation.

Who is a Dyslexia Screening assessment for?

A dyslexia screening assessment is ideal for the following situations:

  1. A child is 6 years old. (Full dyslexia assessments are recommended for children aged seven and over).
  2. A child is showing some difficulties at school with their Literacy skills, but the parent is unsure if it is dyslexia or not.
  3. A child is showing some difficulties at school with their Literacy skills but a full diagnostic is not wanted at this current time due to cost/other factors.

What is the cost of a Dyslexia Screening assessment and when/where can it take place?

The cost of a Dyslexia Screening assessment is £95. This can take place on a weekend  or I can come to your child’s school during the day on a Monday/Tuesday.

Please contact Rebecca on the ‘Contact’ page for more information.

Dyslexia Assessments

Dyslexia assessments can be a bit of a minefield for parents, due to conflicting information available. The post below aims to give a clear explanation of dyslexia assessments and whether one may be useful for your child.

Why might my child need a dyslexia assessment? 

Is your child experiencing problems with developing reading, spelling or writing skills? An assessment can be useful in order to pinpoint the exact difficulties that your child is having and recommendations can then be made for how to overcome these difficulties.

Often children with dyslexic difficulties will have average or above average intelligence but have problems with acquiring literacy skills and with processing and retaining information. This can lead to frustration, lack of confidence and motivation as well as hindering progress if it is not quickly tackled.

What does a dyslexia assessment consist of?

A dyslexia assessment is a full diagnostic assessment which typically takes around 2 – 2 and a half hours.

During the assessment the following areas will be analysed:

Word reading, Reading Comprehension, Spelling, Free writing, Handwriting, Phonological skills, Memory, Processing speed, Verbal and Visual intelligence.

Who can carry out dyslexia assessments?

Educational Psychologists and Specialist Assessors can carry out dyslexia assessments.

The benefits of having an assessment through ‘Surrey Dyslexia Support’ are:

  •  Your child will be assessed by a fully qualified specialist teacher and assessor for dyslexia who has up-to-date training.
  • As the assessor is a current practising teacher you can be assured that the recommendations will be practical, relevant and jargon-free.
  • A private specialist assessor is typically significantly cheaper than getting an assessment through an Educational Psychologist. (£250 compared to £400+)

When is the best age and time to have an assessment?

Dyslexia assessments are recommended for those aged 7 or older.

Assessments need to be no earlier than the beginning of Year 9 in order to count towards Exam Access Arrangements for GCSEs, such as extra time.

What happens after the assessment? 

The assessment will include a full report with recommended areas to develop and  strategies linked to these. If appropriate, a diagnosis of dyslexia will be given and free follow up phone calls can be arranged with the school to discuss the report and actions following it.

Please do not hesitate to contact Rebecca from Surrey Dyslexia Support at r.crocker@live.co.uk/07549 426232 for more info.

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All you need to know about the Year 1 phonics screening check

phonics

What is the phonics screening check? 

With some exceptions, all pupils in Year 1 must take the phonics check in the week beginning the 13th June 2016. The check is designed to confirm whether pupils have learnt phonic decoding to the required standard. It will identify which pupils need additional help to support their decoding skills. The check consists of 40 words divided into two sections. Both sections have a mixture of real and pseudo (nonsense) words that a pupil reads aloud to a teacher.

Phonic decoding

In Year 1 children are taught to recognise sounds in words. They use this knowledge to break down words so that they can read them.  For example, the word ‘moon’ has three sounds and can be broken down into m-oo-n. This breaking down of words is called ‘decoding’.

Which sounds will be featured? 

The words in section 1 will have a variety of simple word structures. They will feature the following:

single letters (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q(u), r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z)
some consonant digraphs (where two consonants are together and make one sound)  (ch, ck, ff, ll, ng, sh, ss, th, zz)
frequent and consistent vowel digraphs (where two letters make one vowel sound)  (ar, ee, oi, oo,or)

The words in section 2 will have a variety of more complex word structures, including two syllable words, with some:

additional consonant digraphs (where two consonants are together and make one sound)  (ph, wh)
less frequent and consistent vowel digraphs, including split digraphs (a-e, ai, au, aw, ay, ea, e-e, er, ew, i-e, ie, ir, oa, o-e, ou, ow, oy, ue, u-e, ur)
trigraphs  (3 letters make one sound) (air, igh).

Why are pseudo (nonsense) words included? 

Pseudo words are useful in the assessment because they show whether a child is able to break down an unknown word in order to read it. When they are reading independently in a real life context they will come across words that they don’t immediately recognise. Therefore, is important that they have the skills to break down words in order to read them and the phonics screening score will show whether they currently have those skills.

What is the pass mark?

In 2015 the pass mark was 32/40. It has not yet been published what the pass mark for the 2016 test paper is. If your child does not reach the required mark they will be given extra support at school to improve their decoding skills and will retake the test in Year two. Parents will be informed of their child’s result.

How can I support my child? 

Sample materials are available on https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/phonics-screening-check-sample-materials-and-training-video

Free phonic games are available on http://www.phonicsplay.co.uk.  Click on ‘Phase 5’

An Oxford Reading Tree phonics kit is available currently on amazon  which is good for preparation – search ‘My phonics kit’.

Book a 1:1 lesson with Rebecca at Surrey Dyslexia Support (see below)

Phonic booster sessions

During May half term and weekends in May/beginning June,  Rebecca (owner of Surrey Dyslexia Support and an experienced infant teacher) is offering 1:1 phonic booster sessions for Year 1 students. The sessions are 45 minutes long and involve

  1. A thorough phonics assessment where you be informed of exactly which sounds your child does and does not know.
  2. Phonic games played in the session to help your child to learn the key skills in a fun way.
  3. A pack of resources for you to keep and to enable you to reinforce learning at home.

Just one session can be booked or multiple sessions. Each session is £30. Please email Rebecca on r.crocker@live.co.uk for more details or to book.

 

 

 

Organising exam support for students with learning difficulties

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In this post I am going to give a brief overview as to how extra support for exams (called ‘Access Arrangements’) are organised for students with learning difficulties such as dyslexia. The focus of this blog post is for students at GCSE level.

What are Access Arrangements?

The Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) represent the examination bodies and produce the guidance for access arrangements. Access arrangements are for candidates with the required skills, knowledge and understanding of a subject but who are unable to demonstrate these in an assessment due to their  disability/difficulty.

Types of Access Arrangements

A student may be eligible for a reader, a scribe, rest breaks, access to a word processor, speech recognition technology, 25% or more extra time, modified papers, a practical assistant or prompter. See the JCQ website for more types of access arrangements.

How to apply for Access Arrangements

The student’s school will make the application for Access Arrangements through ‘Access Arrangements Online’. Parents cannot apply independently so they must talk to the school if they have questions or concerns regarding Access Arrangements. The JCQ will have the final say on whether the access arrangements requested for are permitted. It is now not possible for a teacher/SENCO without a professional assessment qualification to carry out assessments for access arrangements. Therefore, an Educational Psychologist or Specialist Assessor is typically required.

Which Access Arrangements are useful for dyslexic students?

A reader can be useful for students with reading difficulties. If a student has illegible writing or writes at a slow pace then extra time or a scribe may be useful. If a student has slow processing then extra time can be beneficial. Supervised rest breaks can be more useful in some cases than extra time so it is important to consider this as an option. A standardised score of below 85 is typically required to get the Access Arrangement. Depending on the Access Arrangement required, this may be a score of below 85 in reading speed, reading accuracy, reading comprehension, writing speed or cognitive processing (including working memory).

Things to note

The JCQ will be looking to see that whatever support is being requested is the usual way of working for that student. For instance, if the application is for a scribe, the school would need to show that this support is needed in class, for example, during in-class assessments.  A diagnosis of dyslexia or evidence of a discrepancy between IQ and literacy ability are not enough to ensure that an access arrangement will be granted. It is the scores below 85 and the evidence of usual way of working that will have the most weight with the JCQ. It is useful to note that permission for the arrangement lasts 26 months from the date of application so could cover coursework plus mock exams and the real exams.

More detailed information can be found online at www.jcq.org.uk

I hope this was hopeful. Please leave a reply if it was.

How to make phonics successful for children with dyslexia

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What is phonics?

Synthetic phonics is now a key element in the new (statutory) primary national curriculum for state primary schools in England. Phonics is a way of teaching children to read and spell. Children are taught how to recognise sounds in words and blend them together to read. They are also taught how to segment (split) words into their sounds in order to spell them.

There are 44 sounds in the English language but only 26 letters to represent these sounds. This means that some sounds are represented by two or more letters e.g. /sh/ in ‘shop’.  As there are 176 spellings for the 44 sounds the English spelling system is complex and, therefore, a structured programme is necessary to develop reading and spelling accuracy (Sound Reading System).

Dyslexia and phonics

All children, dyslexic or not, need to understand the connection between the sounds in language and what letters are used to represent them. Children with dyslexia typically struggle with reading and spelling as they find it difficult to hear, recall and isolate sounds in words. This means they are likely to need additional support to master the skills of blending and segmenting.

As often the auditory (hearing) channel is weaker in dyslexics, it is important that they are taught phonics in a multi-sensory way. This means, using visual and tactile resources to support the auditory channel. It makes sense that the more senses which are engaged in learning, the more likely the material is to be retained. Children with dyslexia can have memory difficulties. When introducing a new sound, using visual images, a meaningful phrase which includes the focus sound and an action can help the sound to be retained in memory. I often get children to make their own sound cards with a picture that is meaningful for them. For instance, if they have a cat called ‘Theo’, their sound card for ‘th’ might have a picture of their cat to trigger their memory.

Making phonics meaningful

I regularly meet children who are very good at recognising their sounds when presented on flashcards, but struggle to recognise and remember these when attempting to read and spell. This is because the sounds are not yet meaningful to them so they cannot apply them in other contexts.

When children learn a new sound it is important that they hear it in real example words such as /f/ ‘flower’ and /f/ ‘fan’. Make familiar references as much as possible, e.g /f/ that’s like in your mum’s name. /f/ /Fiona/. They need to then experience reading and spelling words with that sound straight away so that it becomes meaningful.

A structured approach

As there is so many sound-spelling combinations to remember it is important that a structured approach is used to ensure coverage of all the main combinations. As children with dyslexia can have difficulty with retaining new knowledge, it is important that there are opportunities for regular ‘overlearning’, whereby students get to engage with words using previously learnt sounds.To summarise, it is not true that dyslexics can’t learn through a phonetic approach. All children need to learn the links between the sounds in words and how they are represented. However, for the sounds to be retained, a structured multisensory approach is necessary, with lots of opportunities for ‘overlearning’.

Why can’t my dyslexic child spell?

dyslexia spelling

Spelling difficulties

Many individuals with dyslexia learn to read fairly well, but difficulties with spelling  tend to persist throughout life. Despite this, there is much less research on spelling which makes it difficult for teachers and parents to know how best to support children who are experiencing difficulties.

One common but mistaken belief is that spelling problems come from a poor visual memory. However, spelling problems, like reading problems, originate with language learning weaknesses. Therefore, spelling reversals of easily confused letters such as b and d, or sequences of letters, are manifestations of underlying language learning weaknesses rather than of a visually based problem. Many dyslexics actually have a very good visual memory and this can be exploited to help them to overcome their weaknesses.

Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate sounds (phonemes) in words. Children with poor phonemic awareness are likely to have difficulty with spelling, as spelling requires the individual to firstly identify the sound in the word that they wish to spell and then to recall the written representation of that sound. As many children with dyslexia have working memory difficulties, it makes it even harder for them to hold the sound in their head whilst working out which letters to use.

Whole words versus phonics

There is great debate as to whether it is more effective for dyslexic children to learn spellings as ‘whole words’ or to learn how to spell using phonological strategies (phonics). In my experience the most effective way for dyslexic children is to follow a carefully structured spelling programme which teaches the children the link between sounds in words and the letters used to represent these sounds.It is important that common morphemes are taught  e.g. ‘-ed’ at the end of ‘walked’ as these change the meaning of words and an understanding of these can help children to have a better understanding of why words are written as they are and enable them to apply this knowledge to new words.

Some common words are helpful to learn as a ‘whole’ initially as their sound-spelling link is tricky, e.g. ‘one’. However, memorising long lists of words as a whole is not recommended as they end up being meaningless to the child and not retained.

The important thing to remember about dyslexic children is that they often have working memory difficulties. Therefore, any spellings learnt will need lots of reinforcement and opportunities to put these spellings into context, for example, in meaningful sentences.

Where to go for more information?

On the main website toolbar click ‘Dyslexia’ and ‘Supporting your child with spelling’ for further ideas.

How can we engage struggling male readers?

boy reading book

Older children who are having difficulty with reading can benefit from what is termed “high interest, low vocabulary” (hi/lo) books. These are books which provide support for developing readers, such as carefully chosen vocabulary and simple sentences, but have compelling stories and characters that interest the reader. The most effective hi/lo materials provide these supports invisibly, so that students are not stigmatized by reading a “baby book.”

An excellent article by Rog and Kropp explains in more detail about these types of books and why they are effective (see link below)

http://www.readingrockets.org/article/hooking-struggling-readers-using-books-they-can-and-want-read

The following links are for series of books designed to appeal to the interests of older children but with accessible texts.

1) Dark Man Series (Interest age – Teenage – Young adult      Reading age 5-8 years)

http://www.ransom.co.uk/DarkMan.html

2) Trailblazers series (Interest age 8-14     Reading age 6-7 years )

http://www.ransom.co.uk/Trailblazers.html

3) Download (Interest age – 9-14+       Reading age 6-7 years)

http://www.risingstars-uk.com/series/ebooks-reading/products/download-set-1-ebook-library

4) Barrington Stokes           Offers books for a range of interest and reading ages.

www.barringtonstoke.co.uk

Happy reading! Please do leave a reply if this post has been helpful or if you have any questions.