What is phonics?
Synthetic phonics is now a key element in the new (statutory) primary national curriculum for state primary schools in England. Phonics is a way of teaching children to read and spell. Children are taught how to recognise sounds in words and blend them together to read. They are also taught how to segment (split) words into their sounds in order to spell them.
There are 44 sounds in the English language but only 26 letters to represent these sounds. This means that some sounds are represented by two or more letters e.g. /sh/ in ‘shop’. As there are 176 spellings for the 44 sounds the English spelling system is complex and, therefore, a structured programme is necessary to develop reading and spelling accuracy (Sound Reading System).
Dyslexia and phonics
All children, dyslexic or not, need to understand the connection between the sounds in language and what letters are used to represent them. Children with dyslexia typically struggle with reading and spelling as they find it difficult to hear, recall and isolate sounds in words. This means they are likely to need additional support to master the skills of blending and segmenting.
As often the auditory (hearing) channel is weaker in dyslexics, it is important that they are taught phonics in a multi-sensory way. This means, using visual and tactile resources to support the auditory channel. It makes sense that the more senses which are engaged in learning, the more likely the material is to be retained. Children with dyslexia can have memory difficulties. When introducing a new sound, using visual images, a meaningful phrase which includes the focus sound and an action can help the sound to be retained in memory. I often get children to make their own sound cards with a picture that is meaningful for them. For instance, if they have a cat called ‘Theo’, their sound card for ‘th’ might have a picture of their cat to trigger their memory.
Making phonics meaningful
I regularly meet children who are very good at recognising their sounds when presented on flashcards, but struggle to recognise and remember these when attempting to read and spell. This is because the sounds are not yet meaningful to them so they cannot apply them in other contexts.
When children learn a new sound it is important that they hear it in real example words such as /f/ ‘flower’ and /f/ ‘fan’. Make familiar references as much as possible, e.g /f/ that’s like in your mum’s name. /f/ /Fiona/. They need to then experience reading and spelling words with that sound straight away so that it becomes meaningful.
A structured approach